Political, Quran & Hadith)

Question : what are the practical ways to reach the unity among the Islamic sects and group especially among Sunni and Shia Muslims?

Answer : in order to reach a desirable unity among the Islamic nations, there are different approaches, which we have tried to present in Imam Khomeini's words and interpretations as the following:

  1. Focus on Qur'an and the prophet's tradition (cable of Allah)
  2. Focus on the unique objective and intention (the establishment of Islam)
  3. Emphasizing and reinforcing the common points
  4. The unification on defecation of common foe
  5. Not presenting the disunity elements and forbearance on insignificant affairs
  6. Distinguishing the most important benefits of Islamic nations (in a universal dimension) and the accord of all sects on it
  7. Getting familiar with enemy's trends and tricks for creating disunity
  8. The continued relation of Islamic thinkers and friendly negotiations to remove the misconceptions
  9. Being tolerant to hear the negative votes
  10. Avoiding to despise each other's sanctimonious
  11. Avoiding defamation, falsehood and irrational bigotry
  12. Controlling people who are always the cause of disunity and separation



Question: What are Imam Khomeini’s views about Islam’s stance towards democracy?

Answer: Imam Khomeini the founder of the Islamic Republic frequently said the democratic values are deeply enshrined in the divine religion of Islam.According to Imam, Islam supports several human, social and moral values and seeks to promote them among the human and Islamic societies.

The great Imam maintained that Islam is supporter of democracy just as backs the maintenance of justice in the society and several others divine and human values.

The great leader of the Muslim world only considered a system legitimate which was based on outcome of people’s vote and masses participation. The great imam emphasized on active role of public and masses’ contribution to all social and governmental affairs.

The great figure of contemporary history also promoted accurate and genuine understanding of Islamic teachings and democratic values.

World founded very comprehensive Islamic-democratic system along with very strong institutions which are excellent instances of good practices and unique governance.

The Islamic Revolution set a successful pattern for establishing a democratic-Islamic government which is deeply relied on the public support and promotes divine, religious and moral values.


Analysts believe that the Islamic Revolution has been a unique and unprecedented phenomenon of this century and it was great accomplishment for those who pursue the notion of self-determination and independence.

Question: Why the US and some of its allies did deem the Islamic Revolution a threat to their interests?


The Islamic Revolution under the wise leadership of Imam Khomeini emerged victorious at very sensitive juncture of history. The colonial powers had divided the world into the eastern and Western blocks.

The Western backers of the Shah regime were pursing their strategic and economic interests in the region through the Pahlavi dynasty.

The great Imam established an Islamic-democratic system following the victory of the Islamic revolution in 1979. The system was established on principals of freedom and independence.

 Iranians revolution had changed the balance of power in interest of the Muslim and oppressed nations. The West and other colonial power saw the revolution as a challenge to their interests in the Mideast region.   

Question: What is the necessity of establishing the Islamic government in Imam Khomeini's perspective?

Answer : We can briefly mention Imam Khomeini's perspective regarding the necessity of Islamic government establishment:

  1. Since the human society can do nothing against the acceptance of a government, and on the other hand, there are uniquely two different general flows of governments, which are religious, and non-religious in front, indifference or the ignorance of a religious government would not necessarily connote the acceptance of a non-religious government. However, this fact is obviously rejected.
  2. Regarding the nature and quality of Islamic laws due to their comprehensibility in all individual and social dimensions of life in each era and generation, we can mention this fact that these laws cannot be performed without the existence of an Islamic system, such as financial laws, defense and Jihad, statutory laws. Therefore, without considering the Islamic government, we can surely mention that the ground of most of divine laws would get limited and some would diminish completely.

The political life of religious predecessors confirms the necessity of Islamic governmental establishment. As an example, we can consider the prophet's acts in the establishment of Islamic government. It is worth mentioning that the execution of divine laws dependent on the Islamic government was not only present in the prophet's era, but its necessity is permanent.

Question:  What was Imam's views and stance regarding the minorities living in the Islamic Republic of Iran?

Answer:    Imam Khomeini the founder of the Islamic Republic of Iran had issued several recommendations and guidance lines about how to behave with minorities. Imam believed that the minorities should be fully blessed with all types of social, political and civil liberties including holding religious gatherings.  The great imam also had given special instruction that all minorities such as Jews, Christians and Zoroastrians must be dealt with kindness, justice and should be granted with all religious and social freedoms. They must be blessed with equal rights just like their Iranian Muslim fellows. They are fully free to express and preach their beliefs, build worship places and hold religious assemblies.

According to Imam's view, the government of the Islamic Republic is obliged to defend the rights of minorities and the Islamic Republic system is a real democracy where the rights and freedoms for all minorities should and must be observed. The Islamic government must resort to logic to provide answers for religious queries being asked either by the followers of the other religions or the Muslim masses.

By exploring the speeches and works of the great Imam someone can easily conclude that Imam used to give importance to the rights of minorities.

Readers are recommended to consult Imam's works including Sahifeh ye-Imam and other books written about Imam's views on human rights, religious and social freedoms.

Question: What types of reforms did take place in armed forces following the victory of the Islamic Revolution?

Answer: The dignified and distinguished Iranian armed forces have passed through various stages over the past decades.  They are now well decorated with spiritual qualities and equipped with high skills to defend the nation. The armed forces are supporter and backer of the people and the Islamic revolution. This was all accomplished due to wise plans by Imam Khomeini following the victory of the revolution in 1979. Iran has emerged as power in the region and the Iranian forces have brought stability and peace in the country and across the region.

The great Imam had predicted from very beginning that the soldiers who suffered from the Shah regime brutal policies would soon join the people.

The Iranian forces have stood shoulder to shoulder with people during all thick and thin times in recent decades.


Question: Why did Imam deem necessary the unity among followers of all religions?

Answer: The great Imam invited the spiritual leaders of  Muslims, Christianity, Judaism and several other religions and invited them to get unite under the flag of monotheism in order to confront the conspiracies of global arrogance.

Moreover, he used to highlight the similarities among religions and called on all the followers and believer of monotheism to unite in a bid to tackle material, social and spiritual pressures and problems confronting the humanity.

The great leader also strongly denounced the blasphemous movements aimed at insulting the religious teachings, symbols and sensitivities.


(About Personalities, Political)

Question : what was the secret of Imam Khomeini's success?
Answer : we can consider Imam Khomeini's secret of success in the following issues:

  1. Piety and fidelity
  2. Having faith and trust in God and divine retribution
  3. A comprehensible cognition from Islam
  4. The supreme scientific place, in both expertise, philosophy and mysticism
  5. Braveness
  6. Political vision
  7. Self-sacrifice and abnegation
  8. The spirit of spiritual struggle
  9. Future looking and hope to reach victory
  10. Having spiritual ambition
  11. Imam Khomeini's spirituality and authority dimension
  12. Investing on people and attracting their confidence
  13. Perseverance and endeavor


(Political, Law & Islamic Jurisprudence)

Question : what is the concept of the primary command, the secondary command and the governmental or the administrative law? What are their principle differences?
Answer : in Islamic thought, all the establishments of legal laws from God are arranged based on the individual and the group benefit and corruptions. The above mentioned issue can be stated in this way there is a common good in a subject, that its achievements is essential for mankind, the apodictic judgment is ascribed to it (that is performing the deed becomes necessary). In addition, if there is an evil in it, which its avoidance becomes essential to humankind, the prohibition judgment will ascribe to it (that is its performing becomes essential). The jurists name this kind of judgment as the primary judgment. However, in the event that special situations and conditions cause humankind not to be able to act according to the primary judgments (conditions like compulsion, impediment, harm...) the arbiter would present another law, which is called the secondary judgment. For example eating the death body is sanctuary based on the primary command but in condition of compulsion (the secondary command), it would be legitimate. Based on the stable common goods and bad in the religion, the primary and secondary judgments are arranged. Nevertheless, beside the governmental laws there are other decisions that the legal guardian of Muslims makes towards the benefit is the society's affairs. These kinds of laws depend on the societies' condition and its benefits, which are often instable and dependent on the time ands place conditions. Therefore, they are changeable. The most important criterion in the governmental laws is the common good of the society.

Question: What was Imam's views and stance regarding the minorities living in the Islamic Republic of Iran?

Answer: Imam Khomeini the founder of the Islamic Republic of Iran had issued several recommendations and guidance lines about how to behave with minorities. Imam believed that the minorities should be fully blessed with all types of social, political and civil liberties including holding religious gatherings. The great Imam also had given special instruction that all minorities such as Jews, Christians and Zoroastrians must be dealt with kindness, justice and should be granted with all religious and social freedoms. They must be blessed with equal rights just like their Iranian Muslim fellows. They are fully free to express and preach their beliefs, build worship places and hold religious assemblies.

According to Imam's view, the government of the Islamic Republic is obliged to defend the rights of minorities and the Islamic Republic system is a real democracy where the rights and freedoms for all minorities should and must be observed. The Islamic government must resort to logic to provide answers for religious queries being asked either by the followers of the other religions or the Muslim masses.

By exploring the speeches and works of the great Imam someone can easily conclude that Imam used to give importance to the rights of minorities.

Readers are recommended to consult Imam's works including Sahifeh ye-Imam and other books written about Imam's views on human rights, religious and social freedoms.


(Philosophy & Religious Argumentation, Law & Islamic Jurisprudence)

Question : what is the meaning of "acquittal and trusteeship"? What is their significance in Islamic laws?

Answer : in literary meaning, trusteeship means loving and knowing as authority, and in contrary, acquittal denotes detesting and knowing as enemy. In expression, these two concepts are considered as the secondary laws of Islam, which connote loving God's disciples and detesting His Enemies. This principle plays an important role in real and divine life of all Muslims, Islamic societies and governments.


(History, Cultural & Social Sciences)

Question: What was the reason of Imam Khomeini's migration from Iraq to France?

Answer: in the late periods of Pahlavi government, while Imam Khomeini lived in Iraq in exile, there was held a meeting between Iran and Iraq's foreign ministers in New York in which they decided to dismiss Imam Khomeini from Iraq.
The Iraqi army surrounded Imam Khomeini's house in the first day of Mehr 1357 in Najaf. The Muslims in Iran, Iraq and other countries reacted angrily to this news. Iraq's manager of security organization said in a meeting to Imam Khomeini that if he wants to stay in Iraq, he should let go off the combat and politics. In response, Imam Khomeini firmly stated he would never accept any compromise and getting silent in front of the responsibility he had toward the Islamic nations. In the 12th of Mehr, in purpose of going to Kuwait, Imam Khomeini left Najaf. By the order of Iran's government, the governor of Kuwait did not allow Imam Khomeini's entrance to his country. We had already talked about Imam Khomeini's migration to Lebanon or Syria; however, after consulting with his children (Seyed Ahmad Khomeini), he decided to migrate to Paris. He arrived to Paris in the 14th of Mehr, and two days later, he went to stay in one of the Iranian's house in Nofel Loshato (suburbs of Paris).
The officers of Elize Palace informed Imam Khomeini not to get involved in any political act. They brought this message from France prime minister to him. In a sharp reaction to their words, Imam Khomeini stipulated that these kinds of restrictions were against democracy claim and said if he was to go from this country to another one, he would never let off his objects. Imam Khomeini spent four months in Nofel Loshato which had become the most important news center of the world.
Imam Khomeini's different interviews and meetings with groups, reporters, the intellectuals, and the foreign students disclaimed his perspectives regarding the Islamic government and the future movement objects for people. Therefore, many people of the world got familiar to Imam Khomeini's thoughts and movement. From this small village (Nofel Loshato), Imam Khomeini led the most critical periods of movement in Iran.


(Political, Quran & Hadith)

Question : What is Imam Khomeini's conception from the Weak and Oppressed sect?

Answer : In Imam Khomeini's interpretations, the concept of the weak and oppressed sect connotes a union of all the world's weak people, whether Muslim or non-Muslim, who have made a unified group to remove all the existing barriers in front and stand against the west and east arrogant. In fact, the concept of the weak and oppressed sect is derived from a Qur'an interpretation, which says God the creator, has introduced the Weak as the real heirs of the earth.


(Political, Law & Islamic Jurisprudence)

Question : what is the significance of Jihad in Islam? Name its different types.

Answer : Jihad denotes struggling for rightness. In Islamic culture, it means humankind's conscious struggle with the enemy, for God and the society. Regarding its objectives, Jihad divides into different kinds: defending Jihad against the armed aggression, the primary Jihad that is essentially for Islam invitation, and Jihad against the followers of insolence (that is, those who act against the Weak). The main purpose of all kinds of Jihad in Islam is the removal of tyranny. A person who is killed for God is named the martyr. According to a prophetic tradition, Jihad against the infidels and tyrannies is named Minor Combat , and against the self (that is struggle with the ethical and Satanic vices) is Major Combat which is more difficult that the previous one.


(Culture & Social Science, Quran & Hadith)

Question : What is the concept of theistic society in Imam Khomeini's words?

Answer : The concept of theistic society in Islamic political culture is in fact the equivalence of Quran expression as the unified nation. Regarding the description of the theistic society, there are different interpretations in Imam Khomeini's words, which are presented in the following lines:

Theistic society is in fact a society that all its members know their intention in acquiring the divine satisfaction and the preservation of legality in all the believing, ethical and political dimensions. In such a society, all the people worship God and believe in God's prophets and their holy Books for the guidance of mankind, the justice system of reward and retribution in the other world etc.


(Ethics & Mysticism)

Question : What is the concept of self-examination? What is the reason that the focus on this concept is mainly seen in most of ethical books such as Imam Khomeini's interpretations?

Answer : The concept of self-examination does actually connote individual's examination regarding his own deeds. There is a lot of emphasis on the mentioned issue in the Islamic ethics, which says humankind should examine his own deeds before he is examined in the present of God. He should separate his good and evil acts and do penance for each evil one. If he has the intention to continue the god deeds, he is to want it heartily from God. In ethical thinking of Imam Khomeini, the concept of self-examination is considered as one of the most important essentials of spiritual travel and self evolution of a person who has adopted the rout of prosperity.



Question: what was Imam Khomeini's conception of the two interpretations of American Islam and pure Islam?

Answer: Imam Khomeini's has interpreted two different impressions of Islam as "American Islam" and "Pure Islam" in the present era. He believed that the American Islam is the kind in which all the social responsibilities, all the gateways of Holy war, promotion of good and prevention of evil, Islamic justice, and all the rules related to social and economical relations in the Islamic society are abandoned and ignored. In this kind of Islam, the Muslims are restrained to get involved in their own policy-making and destiny and the religion with its collection of personal worships and litanies, without regarding the real spirit and philosophy, is connected to America and its relatives. Imam Khomeini calls this kind of Islam as the digressive American one. Right in front of this kind of Islam, there is the real one which is called "pure Islam" in Imam Khomeini's interpretations. Pure Islam is described as the oppressed and deprived defender, opponent to riches, power, aristocracy and authorities.


Question: What was Imam's point of view about maintaining ties with the United States?


Imam Khomeini the founder of the Islamic Republic once drew comparison between the hellfire and the nuclear bombardment of Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki by the United States during the World War II.  The great spiritual and religious leader of the world also reminded the crimes committed by the United States and some of its allies during his speeches to the masses and dignitaries.

Imam also tried to raise awareness among the US public about the crimes the US administration was committing through launching wars against the Muslims and the oppressed nations in different regions of the world.

Imam also warned about the consequences of unconditional support of the Washington for illegal entity of Zionist regime which was posing a great danger to the Middle East region and the Muslim nations. After exploring Imam's speeches, messages and works, some can conclude that Imam's views about maintaining ties with the government in Washington were conditional.

According to Imam's views, if the US government gives up launching of wars against other nations and shows repentance towards crimes against other nations, then establishing ties with Washington would not be objectionable. It is note-worthy that Imam was staunch supporter of expanding political, social and cultural relations with the US public and masses. 


(Political, Culture and Social Science)

Question: What was the most important way of achievement to independence (from different personal, social, political and … aspects) in Imam Khomeini's perspective?

Answer: Regarding Imam Khomeini's opinions, we can mention the following issues as the most important ways of independence achievement:

  • relying to the exalted God in all affairs
  • self-confidence (in personal area) and reliance on the internal capabilities, and faculties (in social aspect)
  • not feeling inferiority against others' achievements and preventing helplessness
  • tolerating the difficulties and hardship
  • improving the hopeful spirit and positive feeling toward the future



Question: When did Pahlavi regime arrest Imam Khomeini for the first time and what was the reason?

Answer: Pahlavi regime arrested Imam Khomeini for the first time at 3:30 a.m. in the 15th of Khordad 1342 (5, June, 1963). The reason was his pounder and epical lecture in the 13th of Khordad on the occasion of Ashora (Moharam 1383). In his lecture, he presented Shah (king) and Israel as the main causes of concern in Iran. Broadcasting the news of Imam Khomeini's detention raised people's objections and caused a great revolution on the 15th of Khordad which was repressed by the regime officers. Imam Khomeini spent 10 days in prison and was finally let out of jail in the 18th of Farvardin 1343, since the government was under the great pressure of public thought.


(Political, Quran & Hadith)

Question: Why did Imam Khomeini begin writing his religious political will with the enumeration of Thaqalein Hadith?

Answer: it seems that Imam Khomeini's main object regarding the enumeration of Thaqalein Hadith in the beginning part of his will is to mention the importance of Islamic nation unity preservation and the consideration of seizing to Quran and the prophet's relations. Imam Khomeini believes that if the world's Muslims follow these two issues as constitution and life prescriptions and bring them into the context of their personal, political and social life, and move toward establishing the religious government, the heavenly commands sovereignty , performing the divine principles and practicing the prophet's tradition, they would reach the spiritual and material prosperity which is promised in all the religions.


(Political, Quran & Hadith)

Question: in the beginning part of Imam Khomeini's will, what can be inferred from the concept of Thaqalein in Saqalein Hadith?

Answer: Thaqalein means two Saqal and Saqal means "everything precious and premium". In Thaqalein Hadith, the purpose of two Saqal is "the Noble Quran", the eternal heredity of the prophet", and "Etrat", the family of Mohammad (peace be upon him), are never separated from each other.


(Political, History )

Question: name some of Imam Khomeini's most important characteristics and services to human socialites.

Answer: we have presented some of Imam Khomeini's most important services to the human society especially the Muslim nations in the following lines:

  1. Reviving God-based and religion focus thought
  2. Reviving the Islamic thought
  3. Returning the spirit of honor to the Muslim
  4. Establishing a government on the basis of Islam religion
  5. Revival of self-belief spirit to the world's Weak
  6. Proving the policy of No West No East in practice
  7. Reviving the Islamic movements in the world
  8. Rejecting the thought which believes in the separation of religion from politics
  9. Reviving the spirit of resistance against the world's arrogant powers

Philosophy & Religious Argumentation, Law & Islamic Jurisprudence

  • Question

Please, explain Imam's perception of "Ijtihad" and "Substantial Ijtihad"?

  • Answer

Literally, Ijtihad is derived from the root word of "Jihad" which means the end effort in doing or gaining something. In juristic expression, it refers to the efforts of the jurist in acquiring the legal rule from the jurisprudence sources. The legal authority or "Mojtahid" is someone who acquires the divine and legal rules with his own Ijtihad. The substantial Ijtihad is also derived from the individual reasoning method of the late Sheikh Mohammad Hasan Najafi- famous to the owner of substance- and the author of Jawahir ul-Kalam (born in 1266).

This book is a complete juristic encyclopedia which includes the words of spirituals and their deductive reasoning. This juristic book is an illustration of juristic movement and its compilations as a work of research, criticism and investigation of past jurists' words and their deductive power based on Quran and Hadith.

Imam's perspective of jurisprudence or substantial Ijtihad is the attention to deduction and the discovery of Islam's basic perspectives and the requirement of study in understanding the divine rules from the four sources of Quran, tradition, consensus of juristic opinion and intellect with the methodology of the late Najafi. Imam believes that some of the interpretations of Ijtihad are not sufficient in some theological schools, which seems to lack the attention to th subject matters, and situational factors of time and place and the governmental dimension of juristic discussions.



  • Question

If it is possible please evaluate and compare Iran's late movements in the previous century which provided the grounds of Islamic victory with Imam Khomeini's leadership?

  • Answer

The first heroic movement of Iranians took place in 1270 as Tobacco Movement. This movement happened in the follow of accrediting an English company with one of the internal products (Tobacco). Naser Al-Din Shah gave the buy and sell credit of tobacco to an English company in front of a less price. From that time on, the foreign colonization and intervention to the economical affairs of the country started to appear.

The open-minded religious people of the country deprived Shah's decisions and went on a strike. These actions continued until their letters and complaints were delivered to the legal authority, the late Mirza-ye Shirazi. Therefore, the legal authority was informed of the trick in front. The famous authority issued a decree which disrupted all the trends of the enemy.

In this decree, the use and consumption of tobacco was announced as the waging war against the Twelve Imam, the Savior. Therefore, the Qajar Shah had to cancel the contract. Unfortunately, this fighting was not so practical and again the presence of colonization was concrete. From that on, the disastrous trends of colonization began to appear until the Constitutional Movement in 1285.

The main cause of this movement was the establishment of a court and the national council assembly. After a continuous fighting and rioting, they achieved their goals, apparently. However, after some time, the main elements of colonization tied to the Parliament took the control of the country's affairs.

This time, again the hideous appearance of colonization was shown through the influence of those tyrannies and caused so many disasters for the people. This movement was authoritized by Ayatollah Khorasani and Noori and other great scientific and political characters, but instead of being effective, it had the opposite result and paved the way of Qajar dynasty destruction and the appearance of Pahlavi family.

The Pahlavi Regime had the control of the government from the 1299 coup up to 1357 revolution, approximately for 60 years. It imprisoned, murdered and tortured many great characters. It was in the era of Pahlavi Government that Iranian people started their courageous movement with Kashani's leadership and Dr. Mosadegh.

Their movement was mainly for the nationalization of Oil Industry. They were relatively successful in this struggle until the coup of 28 Mordad 1322 which lead to the domination of Pahlavi Regime with the aids of CIA and MOSAD. Mohammad Reza Pahlavi gave the control of Iran's rich sources and natural products to the colonial countries, especially USA, and made the foreigners to be dominant in all the country's affairs.

Analyzing the recent century's events and movements, it can be stated that the three mentioned movements were important in acquiring valuable achievements but they were not considered as the basic or root movements.

In other words, in the three mentioned movements, the root of corruption- the non-religious government under the leadership of a tyrannical person- was preserved and the transformation or any change was done in its appearance, while in the fourth movement of the nation, the root of corruption, the dictatorship government was eradicated and a new revolution and a new system was founded on the previous Regime's ruins.

The fourth revolution was a religious, basic and national revolution which was established by Imam Khomeini's leadership. With Imam's Anti-Tyrannical movement, from Aban 1341, Iran became alive and the people did everything to achieve the Islamic ideals during the 17 years.

The leader of this movement was like a real combatant; he was imprisoned and exiled and lost his dear son in this way. Finally, the faithful Iranian reached the complete victory in the 22nd of Bahman 1357 and opened new horizons of the divine national government for the other nations and governments of the world.



  • Question

Please, explain the causes of USA Embassy capture in Tehran through Iranian revolutionary forces?

  • Answer

After the victory of the Islamic revolution of Iran, the western countries, especially USA, organized facilities to attack the new Iran's Islamic system and began to establish the bases of the opposed Iranian outside of the country.

These opposed countries did not meet the Iranian legal desires to establish a divine system and the returning of Shah and the blocked properties which were 22 Billion Dollars.

The hostile deeds of USA on Iran, especially its accepting Shah , together with the un-announced news of Bazargan meeting with Berjhineski, the national security counselor of the white house in Al-Jazeera, triggered people's anger. All of these issues were the cause of some revolutionary students' movement to capture USA Embassy in the13th of Aban 1358.

They could imprison the American riflemen. The secret documents appeared in USA ministry (which are published more than 50 volumes), indicated USA's spying and interventions in Iran and other countries of the world.

After the capture of USA's spying center, Imam Khomeini supported the students' revolutionary act and considered it as a greater revolution than the first one.


  • Question

Explain the meaning of legality in Islam and clarify the significant conception of the thought that believes in the Islamic legality on the part of God and not people? /

  • Answer

In summary, we can define legality as the rational justification of submission and domination application. In fact, legality is based on 2 principles; the first is that on what basis a person or a group has the right to dominate on others and to issue compulsory commands? And the second one is that what principle does justify the requirement of public submission from the governmental commands?

In other words the Islamic authority is always in the follow of compulsory rules and commands and there is a rational relationship between "the right of authority" and "the need of submission".

Therefore, the two mentioned principles should cover both aspects and present a rational justification.

In theology and political jurisprudence, legality is defined as "rightfulness" and is applied in front of Usurpation. Thus, from this perspective, "legality" indicates who has the right to play authority on people on the basis of some standards and why the society should be submissive in front of the governors?

In Islamic perspective, the origin of legality comes from the authority and the authorization of God. In this vision, the instinct origin of legality is God, since he is the creator of the world and mankind, the owner of the entire universe, the only independent power and the governor of the entire world.

In Islam, the political authority is considered as a kind of invasion in the creatures' affairs which is itself one aspect of the Divinity. The element of unity in the Divine lordship does not reflect any origin in the creation and legislation system. The holy Quran states;

Sovereignty belongs only to Allah (Surat Yusuf: 40)

Have they taken guardians besides Him? It is Allah who is the Guardian (Surat al-Shura: 9)

Therefore, on the basis of rational principle, nobody has the authority right on social aspects of people unless he is selected from the God Almighty or on the basis of a credited legal reason, his being selected be proved (the divine authorization can be represented directly or indirectly from the prophets). Now, the most important question rolls over this statement that whether the pure God has transferred this right to others or not?

On the basis of many reasons, God has transferred this right to his prophets and other infallible Imams. The holy Quran talks about this reality in many of its verses; consider some of them:

The Prophet is closer to the faithful than their own soul (Surat al-Ahzab: 6)

Obey Allah and obey the Apostle and those vested with authority among you (Surat al-Nisa: 59)

It is also mentioned that the Twelvers Shiite believe in the appointment of the infallible Imams, on the basis of determined reasons. In addition to these Shiite authorities, they believe in the common appointment of well-qualified jurists who are appointed from the legislator or the deputy of Imam for the authority and political social leadership in the era of occultation. Although the same issue- Jurisdiction- does not relate to the occultation era, it can be achieved in the presence of Holy Imam, like the appointment of Malek Ashtar from the part of Imam Ali for governing Egypt.

Therefore, legality means the authority rightfulness which without the consideration of its achievement or not, originates from the divine authorization, and appointment. However, when the mentioned authority is not publicly accepted, it will not be able to apply the things related to social benefits, despite its having the legal right of authority.



  • Question

Can we put the words “republic” and “Islam” together in the Islamic republic government? /

  • Answer

"Republic" is often assigned to governments that are founded on the majority of people, that is, the government relative to majority. Republic in its western concept is different from its Islamic one. In its western meaning, republic means the legislation of public government that is people give the right of authority to someone, directly or indirectly and place a person as the president to manage the society. In this case people themselves are legal and the legislation of the government and the authority is certainly done according to people's choices. Therefore, the origin of power is, in its essence, from the public.

However, in Islam perspective, the right of authority only belongs to God and those who are authorized from God. Therefore, the authorization of the government and the authority is divine and not public. However, the entire stages of Islamic government which is interpreted as "the authority of God on people" would not be practiced until people accept it.

Therefore, the republication in it Islamic concept means the public acceptance. This is the same interpretation of "presence of the present" in Imam Ali's words who believes it as the cause of his project and the acceptance of the government by people. Thus, Islam believes that the objective achievement of the divine government is based on the acceptance, selection and cooperation of people and also believes in its divine authorization.

The concept of selection is equivalent to the concept of allegiance in the history of Islam. There are a lot of instances of the mentioned issue in history. Principally, the meaning of allegiance in Islam is the same public choice which interprets the meaning of republic.

Therefore, this kind of Islamic republic means the gathering of choice and the mixture of the divine and public powers and not the cause of weakness in divine and public responsibilities.


Law & Islamic Jurisprudence

  • Question

What is the meaning of Islamic economics?

  • Answer

Answering this question requires a long and precise discussion; however, we can say in summary that among the Islamic thinkers, the Islamic economics is applied by one of the following concepts;

Economic rules: these are juristic rules around economics. For example, the rules that say "Usury is forbidden" or "wasting is illegal" or "it is necessary to consume things based on the needs" are all around the economic subjects.

Economic principles: economic principles are general issues that can be deduced directly or indirectly from the economic rules. For instance, the following sentence can be regarded as an economic principle, "among the personal and common interests, the latter one has the legal priority'. This principle can be deduced from the rules such wasting prohibition; damage prohibition; distress and constriction prohibition; interest wasting prohibition …

Economic school: the economic school is in fact a collection of economic principles that determine the general orientation of the economic system. In fact, applying the "school" can be a suitable way to solve the economic problems.

Economic system: it is a collection of inter-related elements, which supply a special target in the economic domain. In fact, the economic system includes the economic school plus the special methods and frameworks of each society in each era.

Generally, we can mention that the concept of Islamic economy in Imam's words indicate a coherent collection of Islamic instructions which contain the above four domains, relatively defined and systematic with Islam.


Law & Islamic Jurisprudence

  • Question

Does Islam confirm "the private ownership"?

  • Answer

It is necessary to say that Islam's perspective greatly differs with the perspective of socialism and capitalism regarding the private and public ownership. As a general rule, Capitalism believes in private (personal) ownership and accepts "the common ownership" in special conditions of social needs. In contrast to Capitalism, we have the Socialism which believes the common ownership as a general rule.

It never accepts the private ownership unless in excepted cases. Among these, the economic school of Islam believes in the private ownership as a gift from God who is the owner of the entire universe. It also has the same concept for the common ownership.

In summary,

1- the private ownership in Islam is distinguished and confirmed as a fact,

2- developing and extending properties is done in two ways; in one way, if the goal of increasing the richness is to supply the essential needs of life, to preserve face, to give good service to others and to do good deeds, it will be strongly encouraged but if the goal of increasing richness is the pleasure, lust and other things, it will be discouraged in Islam. Imam Ali states,

“In gaining the trivial things of this world, they go faster than each other and begin to struggle on a dead body”.

3- As well as the attention to the spiritual development, Islam focuses on the development of economic fields, since the spirituality and materiality are along with each other. The culture and spirituality of a society can provide the welfare and economic growth of that society. This economic growth also can be an appropriate field for mankind's spiritual characterization.

4- Considering the previous facts, it can be proved that man's growth and prosperity is not only summarized in the economic issues, but it can be regarded as one of the basic elements of man's spirituality. Therefore, gaining the rich is not considered as an appropriate condition for personal and common welfare but certainly is regarded as a necessary condition.


Ramadan & Fasting

  • Question

Why the holy month of Ramadan is called as spring of Quran??

  • Answer

The holy book of Quran was reveled to the honorable prophet of Islam in sacred month of Ramadan. It means there is close association between these two divine phenomena.

Moreover, the holy Quran indicates that observing fast was a duty and obligation for the followers of all divine religions including Islam. The ultimate objective of observing fast is to achieve piety and piousness for the believers and faithful people.

According to holy Quran, only the pious can attain the real guidance from the divine scripture.

Imam Ali (peace be upon him)  also said the holy Quran is best of the words, bears divine wisdom and he recommends to ponder in its contents since it plays a role of spring for hearts and souls.

The holy prophet of Islam (peace be upon him) has also recommended to recite holy Quran during the holy month of Ramadan. The honorable prophet said in one of his sermons that reciting a single verse of Quran during the holy month amounts to reading the whole holy book during other parts of the year.

It is a crystal clear that reciting Quran in Ramadan has a matchless reward during this holy period of the year.


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