Constitutional movement considered as one of main events in history of Iran

Constitutional movement considered as one of main events in history of Iran

The Constitutional Revolution is considered as one of the main events in the history of Iran which paved the way for the Islamic Revolution. People who had been fed up with dictatorship, injustice and poverty hit the street to cry out their demands which were remained unfulfilled after the Constitutional Revolution.

Almost 40 years into the victory of the Islamic Revolution in 1979, despite all the achievements, the government is still grappling with various problems namely economic ones. Some of the officials blame the sanctions and conspiracies of the West as the main reasons behind the situation.

In early 1979 Iranians finally ceased the 25 centuries of monarchic rule and instituted a novel manner of governance instead; a democracy predicated on religion.

Imam Khomeini once said that "History is a lesson for us. When you read the history of constitutionalism, you see at first the Constitutional Movement proceeded, but later hands came in and divided the entire people of Iran into two groups...Those despots later came, seized control of the constitutional movement, and led it where you and we saw..." ( Sahifeh-ye-Imam, Vol.18, page 143)

For centuries, the mottos “Independence, Liberty & Islamic Republic” have been the very things Iran lacked prior to the revolution of 1979. The Shah’s regime both politically and economically was fully dependent on the West and the Islamic Jurisprudence had no part in the enactment of law or taking and making executive decisions. After the Islamic Revolution became victorious Iranians designed a structure of governance which would both guarantee democracy and respect people’s religious values. 

The system of the Islamic Republic in Iran is a presidential democracy, wherein three separate powers, of the Executive, the Legislature and the Judiciary, function independently.  This much is quite similar to many other regimes of governance; but the Iranian system, has a difference, as this trio of independent state powers, all look up to a single individual: The Leader, who based on the constitution, is vested with the duty to enjoy supreme supervision over all aspects of the state structure and to make sure Islamic principles and the people’s expedience is duly observed in all decisions made or taken by the totality of the governance system.

According to the Iranian constitution, the Assembly of Experts is chiefly in charge of electing a replacement for the leader in case anything happens to him that prevents him from leading the nation. An example of this happened after Imam Khomeini's demise. This assembly of experts is asked to monitor the performance of the Leadership’s Office. As such, the assembly is required to make sure the Leader, enjoys sufficient, political, religious, jurisprudential and spiritual qualifications.

Irrespective of all these, the country is run by the administration. This also means, the Iranian president is the country’s second in command and by employing the 18 ministries his cabinet is made up of, is charged with implementing the ratifications made by the legislature, or the Islamic Consultative Assembly. The Iranian Islamic Consultative Assembly or parliament holds some 290 members who are elected every 4 years. 


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